No yolk: eating the whole egg as dangerous as smoking?


Melissa Healy, LA Times

Just as you were ready to tuck into a nice three-egg omelet again, comforted by the reassuring news that eggs are not so bad for you, here comes a study warning that for those over 40, the number of egg yolks consumed per week accelerates the thickening of arteries almost as severely as does cigarette smoking.

Server, can you make that an egg-white omelet instead, please?

The study, published Tuesday in the journal Atherosclerosis, measured the carotid wall thickness — a key indicator of heart disease risk — of 1,231 patients referred to a vascular prevention clinic, and asked each to detail a wide range of their health habits, from smoking and exercise to their consumption of egg yolks. Just as smoking is often tallied as “pack-years” (the number of cigarette packs smoked per day for how many years), egg-yolk consumption was tallied as “egg yolk years” (the number of egg yolks consumed per week times the number of years they were eaten).

The study subjects were typically referred to the clinic after having suffered a clot-induced stroke or a transient ischemic attack — a “mini-stroke” in which symptoms may disappear quickly but which often presage a more serious stroke to come.

Smoking tobacco and eating egg yolks increased carotid wall thickness in similar fashion — which is to say, the rate of increase accelerated with each stair-step up in cigarette smoking or yolk consumption. By contrast, for those who did not smoke, or who rarely consumed egg yolks, carotid wall thickness increased after 40, but at a slow-steady rate.

For those whose consumption of whole eggs was in the highest 20%, the narrowing of the carotid artery was on average about two-thirds that of the study’s heaviest smokers.

“We believe our study makes it imperative to reassess the role of egg yolks, and dietary cholesterol in general, as a risk factor for coronary heart disease,” the study authors write.

In recent years, nutritionists have begun to agree with egg purveyors that chicken eggs — cheap and packed with protein — have gotten a bad rap as a dangerous source of cholesterol. Some studies have suggested that eggs may increase HDL, or “good cholesterol” that protects against heart disease, even as it contributes to the artery-clogging LDL cholesterol, making egg consumption something of a wash. And regular egg-eaters may form larger lipoprotein particles that help clear the blood of fat particles and are not as likely to settle in artery walls.

Still, the National Heart Blood and Lung Institute recommends that to limit their risk of developing heart disease, Americans limit their cholesterol intake to no more than 300 mg per day (an egg yolk has just over 200 mg), and eat no more than four whole eggs weekly, including those in baked goods or processed foods. Those who already have heart disease, diabetes or high LDL-cholesterol, or who have had a stroke, should limit their cholesterol to less than 200 mg per day.

15 Responses

  1. phyllis says:

    Here we go again. Many years ago they told people don’t eat real eggs. Instead eat the “fake” eggs as it is better for your heart and arteries. That was false facts. So, they are on the same kick renewed again. Those evil controllers do not want you getting protien and any nutrition unless it comes from a bottle of something chemical they can require you to go to the doctor for! Push this rubbish aside. I wish everyone could own chickens in their yard and get healthy fresh eggs instead of the store bought eggs lacking in nutrition and full of antibiotics.

  2. GoneWithTheWind says:

    Heavy on conclusions but devoid of data. let me fill in the blanks: Like any study what they meant was a small percentage increase in hardening of the arteries in those who ate a lot of eggs. Logic tells you that if there is a small percentage increase then there is a large percentage that did not increase (i.e. if 10% go an increased hardening of the arteries then the 90% left did not). What this means is “something” is “maybe” going on but they don’t know what since they were only “controlling” for eggs. Maybe all or most of the increase was for people with diabetes or people with exceptionally high cholesterol levels or people who are obese or people of specific races or mostly one gender or people with sedentary lifestyles or… But we will never know because they gave no data and they only concerned themselves with one vector; eggs. A classic useless and unscientific study.

  3. Edward says:

    This egg scare is just a repeat from decades ago along with the cholesterol scare. According to a well known source of mine who I call Dr. b, who was a whistleblower ex CIA and military doctor in secret experiments the cholesterol scare is a hoax to earn money for certain segments of the medical community. He stated that you can eat as many egss as you want every day. After listening to his advice for 6 years I can say i have eaten 3 eggs every morning for 15 years and am in perfect health..

  4. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    Nicotine, most know of it through smoking and tobacco use. I’ve always wondered why the US Government is so adamant with anti-smoking and tobacco usage. The carcinogenic properties are bad yes, i do condone smoking but only in small amounts and from organic of hand rolling tobacco, pipe tobacco or Cigars. I do however condone nicotine gum, or other nicotine treatments. Here is why.

    Nicotine has an adverse effect on fluoride.

    Remember how fluoride inhibits choleric activity? Nicotine excites them, rebounding and undoing fluorides effect. Nicotine is being used as a treatment for ADD and ADHD, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease. I will not list the rest, for every single ailment fluoride is known to cause, nicotine has the reverse effect.

    It makes you wonder, why people who smoke may find a considerably less effect from Prozac and other anti-depressants. Why most people with ADD and ADHD develop into smokers. WHY DO MOST DOCTORS SMOKE?
    Parkinson’s disease is your brain’s ability to receive and use dopamine from the blockage or death of brain cells in the motor regions. The cause is UNKNOWN. On a side note, i’ll mention again how fluoride enters the brain tissue easily and deposits aluminum at will, which has a conspicuous effect of killing brain cells and clogging up dopamine receptors. The most common treatment is levodopa, a drug that increases dopamine levels, so that what receptors and brain cells you have left can receive a better supply of dopamine. Funny, nicotine has the same effect. on a large level. Large enough so that it becomes addictive. Your brain becomes used to the higher dopamine count, so when the dopamine stops coming, your brain says “hey, i want some more ‘o’ that.”

    There is a lot more info. Here are some links for your own further research.,,

    Summation – Fluoride & Pineal Gland: Up until the 1990s, no research had ever been conducted to determine the impact of fluoride on the pineal gland – a small gland located between the two hemispheres of the brain that regulates the production of the hormone melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone that helps regulate the onset of puberty and helps protect the body from cell damage caused by free radicals. It is now known – thanks to the meticulous research of Dr. Jennifer Luke from the University of Surrey in England – that the pineal gland is the primary target of fluoride accumulation within the body. The soft tissue of the adult pineal gland contains more fluoride than any other soft tissue in the body – a level of fluoride (~300 ppm) capable of inhibiting enzymes. The pineal gland also contains hard tissue (hyroxyapatite crystals), and this hard tissue accumulates more fluoride (up to 21,000 ppm) than any other hard tissue in the body (e.g. teeth and bone). After finding that the pineal gland is a major target for fluoride accumulation in humans, Dr. Luke conducted animal experiments to determine if the accumulated fluoride could impact the functioning of the gland – particularly the gland’s regulation of melatonin. Luke found that animals treated with fluoride had lower levels of circulating melatonin, as reflected by reduced levels of melatonin metabolites in the animals’ urine. This reduced level of circulating melatonin was accompanied – as might be expected – by an earlier onset of puberty in the fluoride-treated female animals. Luke summarized her human and animal findings as follows: “In conclusion, the human pineal gland contains the highest concentration of fluoride in the body. Fluoride is associated with depressed pineal melatonin synthesis by prepubertal gerbils and an accelerated onset of sexual maturation in the female gerbil. The results strengthen the hypothesis that the pineal has a role in the timing of the onset of puberty. Whether or not fluoride interferes with pineal function in humans requires further investigation.”

  5. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    What a B.S. article. Thought you guys were wise to the mainstream. Now your becoming it. Sad.

  6. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    Tobacco: the definitive link in healthy aging.
    By Daniel John Richard Date

    It is a fact, all of the world’s oldest living people are classified as chain-smokers [1]. A few of them drink daily [1][2][3], one of them even smokes marijuana daily[3]. Posed with these facts, research was to be done as to why this was possible.

    Sources of Vitamin: Nicotine, Cannibinoid, Opiate
    The brain contains receptors designed to receive nicotine, cannibinoid, and opiate. Thus, we can be assured that they are necessary components of a balanced diet and are of nutritional value.
    Nicotine in Tobacco is analogous to Vitamin B3 (Niacin) [4]. The discovery of Vitamin B3 was through tobacco research, and nicotine (nicotinic acid) is also present in wholesome foods.
    Nicotine is found in Eggplants and Tomatoes, Tobacco, Whole grains, leaves and meat. Consumption of nicotine (niacin) by smoking inhalation of Tobacco is profoundly associated with extreme longevity. [1] To meet the U.S. RDA for niacin (nicotine) (15-20mg/day) requires that a person consume a serving of chicken, a serving of turkey, a serving of spinach, and a bowl of fortified cereal; or smoke 2 packs of cigarettes each day.

    Anandamide is a cannibinoid in chocolate; it binds with the same receptors as THC (marijuana). Consumption of large quantities of Chocolate is known to produce “Marijuana like high”[5] The consumption of cannibinoid is associated with extreme longevity. [3][6] The world’s oldest documented persons Jeanne Calment (1875-1997) and Sarah Knauss (1880-1999), were passionately fond of chocolate. Jeanne Calment habitually ate two pounds of chocolate per week until her physician induced her to give up sweets at the age of 119 – three years before her death aged 122. [6]
    Opiates are found in wholesome foods we eat; Milk, wheat, barley and poppy seeds, all contain significant amounts of opiate proteins that stimulate the exact same opiate binding receptors in the brain as heroin [7]

    It would seem that because the brain is designed with receptors to receive nicotine, cannabinoid, and opiate; and their sources being inherently attractive sources of food; Marijuana, Chocolate, Tobacco, Bread, Meat, and Dairy; any intelligent and educated person could capably realize that this meant “higher” nutrition.

    The Value of Nicotine, Cannibinoid, and Opiate Vitamins in History:

    Man was never meant to run out of Tobacco and experience withdrawal symptoms, it is the fastest producing crop in the world; yielding 1 million seeds per plant. [8] Praised by Native American tribes for its peaceful qualities. They believed smoking allowed for one to communicate with the “Great Spirit” (North American-monotheistic deity) and the “Heart of Sky” (South American-monotheistic deity). This coincides with the old testament of the bible, which believes that making “Burnt Offerings” allowed for one to atone for their sin, and become united with the Holy Spirit. The Central American Mazatec Shamans practice Catholicism today, they drink Fermented Tobacco Juice and smoke the leaves of psycho-active jungle herbs (Salvia); they believe that this is the way of Jesus Christ.

    Marijuana is industrially the most useful plant ever cultivated by man; it is praised in the bible for its psychoactive properties [9]. It is scholarly understood that the word Cannabis has its earliest root in the Semitic Language of Hebrew. The ancient Hebrew word for Cannabis is Kaneh–Bosem. In the bible, the word was mistranslated to Calamus; though many English bibles noted this error and decided to use “Fragrant Cane” instead, the rough translation of Kaneh-Bosem. Any intelligent person could realize that “Kaneh-Bos” is the origin of the word “Cannabis”.
    The second page of the bible states, “And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which [is] upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which [is] the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for food” (Gen 1:29). To the good believers of the bible, this means [all] herbs yielding seed across the face of the earth; including marijuana and tobacco, are wholesome and of nutritional value. The following verses go on to state that these things are “Very Good” as well. Most believers in the bible believe that Cannabis is bad, because it is illegal. They do not understand that only man has made it illegal, with the intent of inducing malnutrition among the populace. This has succeeded, with the rates of obesity; pharmaceutical companies are now extracting THC from cannabis to use as a weight-loss drug [10].

    Chocolate is an opiate, cannibinoid, amphetamine, and source of nicotine all mixed together, it was held of the highest economic and religious value by the Indigenous South Americans. [11]
    Chocolate contains tryptophan. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. It is the rate-limiting step in the production of the mood-modulating neurotransmitter serotonin. Enhanced serotonin function typically diminishes anxiety. Tryptophan is also broken down by the body into nicotine (niacin).
    Consumption of chocolate triggers the release of endorphins, the body’s endogenous opiates. Enhanced endorphin-release reduces the chocolate-eater’s sensitivity to pain.
    Chocolate contains a group of neuroactive alkaloids known as tetrahydro-beta-carbolines. Tetrahydro-beta-carbolines are also found in beer, wine and liquor.
    Chocolate contains phenylethylamine, structurally identical to amphetamine, well indicating why this food staple is highly addictive.
    Bread is spoken of highest value in the Holy Bible. Exodus 16:12, “I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, at even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God.” By direct implication, only under the influence of opiates and nicotine found in bread, can man even be able to understand the divine’s existence. It is also said in the bible, that both Jesus and Moses anointed themselves with holy oil (marijuana containing) and spent 40 days in the desert without eating bread; yet came back gleaming because they had been with Yahweh. This means that if a person has no bread, he can supplement his nutrition with cannabis to remain in a consciousness that is holy.

    Milk, which contains powerful bovine opiate (casomorphine), meant to sedate baby cows; is highly praised in the Holy Quran. “Be grateful to the Bounties of Allah, to eat its meat and drink its milk, pure milk, palatable to drinkers.” (16:66) The Prophet Mohammad is reported in the Hadith Collection of his records to have encouraged a man to drink more milk than he normally would. The Prophet Mohammad is also said to have never left his house without “Kefir”. Kefir is a lactose based bacterial culture that cannot factually survive without human care. Kefir also proves beyond reasonable doubt the theory of “Creationism”. Not only is this organism unable reproduce itself without human care, but historic man did not have the capabilities of creating living organisms that would be dependent upon himself for survival. Kefir contains the most important lacto-bacteria’s for the human immune-system, and was required by law to be consumed daily by Chernobyl survivors [citation needed]. It is not found naturally occurring in nature, and only capable of reproducing itself if placed in buckets of milk. The Recorded History of Kefir states that “God rained it down to man from the sky as a gift”, which also serves as the only rational explanation for its existence. Mohammad was reported to have healthily lived for 96 years, and was able to fight war through his elderly age.

    Wine is spoken of frequently in the holy bible and especially recommended, “Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach’s sake and thine often infirmities. ” (Timothy 5:23) If taken literally, we should no longer drink water and instead drink wine exclusively. Jesus turned the water into wine, possibly because water is simply not as wholesome.

    Wine is typically forbidden to Muslim’s, only out of ignorance of their own religion, as similarly experienced by Christians with Cannabis. It is stated in the Quran, “A similitude of the Garden which those who keep their duty (to Allah) are promised: Therein are rivers of water unpolluted … and rivers of wine, delicious to the drinkers.”
    — Sura 47:15
    “Surely the pious will be in bliss … their thirst will be slaked with pure wine sealed.”
    — Sura 83:22,25
    How would Muslim’s ever know the taste of wine, and what to expect in the afterlife, if it is forbidden to them in the first place? I am sure there would be no suicide bombings if they took drinks and relaxed like the Islamic people of Turkey.

    Health Benefits of Tobacco according to the Scientific Method:
    Tobacco tar is known to protect against the damaging effects of Asbestos [12], cure Asthma and prevent Breast Cancer [13]. Nicotine has been shown to stop Tuberculosis in its tracks. [14] Carbon Monoxide may prevent Heart attacks and Stroke. [15] Parkinson’s Disease is associated with non-smoking [16] Alzheimer’s disease is associated with non-smoking. [17] Less than 3% of smokers die of lung cancer, even if they smoked chemical ridden generic cigarettes. [18] According to the Journal of Theoretic, Smoking simply does not cause Lung Cancer. [19a] Researchers attempted to induce lung-cancer in thousands of mice through exposure to chronic levels of tobacco smoke (equivalent to 200 cigarettes a day in some cases) every study failed. One study even proved that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke protected mice from cancer induced by nuclear radiation. [19b][c]

    Tobacco Related “Premature death” by the Scientific Method:
    A person is logged as a premature smoking death no matter what age he dies, including the worlds oldest living people [20].

    Anti-tobacco research is paid for and governed by the Pharmaceutical industry. [21] The Pharmaceutical industry distributes methamphetamines to children [22], including Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride)[23] Their credibility and integrity is certainly dubious. They happen to be the sole supplier and profiteer of nicotine patches.

    Facts and Evidences:
    Marijuana smoking is not linked to lung cancer, even though it contains more chemicals “known to cause Lung Cancer”. [24]

    The Pharmaceutical industry has submitted an ample amount of scientific evidence to convince people of smoking related epidemic, some studies have even shown the complete opposite of the scientific evidence I have chosen to use in my research. It is certain that all of the studies conducted by the pharmaceutical industry are biased to produce anti-smoking propaganda (i.e. using obese smokers as test subjects)(or…citing that nicotine dependent fast-food eaters died from their smoking and not from their fast food consumption [20][25] . No conclusive truth can be established from Scientific Study, but people will believe what they are told on Television to be fact anyway.

    This essay is designed to educate the brain-washed masses with facts. For this purpose, I specifically chose the scientific evidence that supported the fact, worlds oldest living people are chain smokers [1].
    Those who disagree will choose the scientific evidence that supports the theory “Smoking causes premature death”[20]

    Scientific evidence is produced of money, and fact is produced of history. Many people have been confused in deciphering the difference between scientific evidence and fact. Under the Iron-Curtain of Corporatism, the facts will not even be known by most people, excluding myself and the readers of this essay.

    The fact states that the world’s oldest living people were smokers and suffered no ailment from it [1].

    Those who rely on Science Fiction (err…evidence) in an attempt to fraudulate the fact say, “Smoking causes premature death”.[20]

    I know that my logic must be superior to that of a “normal” non-smoking human being, and I declare that “Fact disproves fiction”. The wisest words to have been spoken throughout the recorded history of man.

    A short segment about Alcohol:
    Some of the world’s oldest living people were considered “moderate drinkers”. Moderate drinking is defined as 1-3 glasses of alcohol a day. The Queen Elizabeth lived 100 years drinking gin cocktails and smoking cigarettes daily. As did George Burns with his 20 cigar a day habit beginning at the age of 12, he is rumored to have also enjoyed ten martinis on a daily basis.

    Vitamins in Beer? “Unfiltered” Beer is chalk full of B-vitamins, it is known as “liquid bread”.[26] Moderate drinking is known to provide over 50 different health benefits[27].

    Is all alcohol created equal?
    Most alcohol on the market is cheap crap, filtered beer is crap, preservatives and chemical flavorings are crap and often added to alcoholic beverages. For a good drink, buy quality Gin that has been distilled at least 3 times. i.e. “Bombay Sapphire”, mix it with all natural tonic water and squeeze some grapefruit juice into it. Or try drinking unfiltered beer for a real health experience.

    Read my sources, light up, have a drink, and encourage your children to smoke. One should note, that creationism is shown beyond reasonable doubt by paintings from the 15th and 18th centuries [29]

    “Jesus basically walked around bad-mouthing ‘Pharisees and Saccubacees’, people back then didn’t smoke tobacco yet, so they were living the symptoms of non-smoking; irritability and hunger. The symptoms of non-smoking made them practically barbaric; The Jews killed Jesus for exercising his fourth amendment.” Daniel John Richard Date

    1: The Evidence – World’s Oldest – All Smokers
    2:Biography of Madame Jeanne Calment
    3. 120 Year-old Woman Claims smoking pot/tobacco and drinking every day is her secret to long life.
    4. Encyclopedia entry for Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
    5. Neuroscience for Kids: Coco
    6: Psychoactive food:
    7. Encyclopedia entry: Gluten-free Casein-free diet.,_casein-free_diet
    8. Encyclopedia entry: Tobacco
    9. Cannabis Linked to Biblical Healing
    10. Cannabis Obesity Drug Trials to Start – Yahoo News UK
    11. History of Chocolate
    12. Smoking has a protective effect on immunological abnormalities in asbestos workers.
    0429. Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland). Lange, A. “Effect of Smoking on Immunological Abnormalities in Asbestos Workers.
    Relative risk of lung cancer for asbestos workers was “highest for those who had never smoked, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for ex-smokers. The trend was statistically significant. There was no significant association between smoking and deaths from mesothelioma,” [emphasis added].
    0565. University of London, School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. “Cancer of the Lung Among Asbestos Factory Workers.”

    [Many other studies show similar findings for asbestos workers].
    13. Smokers Paradoxes, the Health Benefits of Smoking
    14. Shocker: Villain ‘Nicotine’ slays TB
    15. The Carbon Monoxide Paradox
    16. Parkinson’s Disease is associated with non-smoking.
    17. Alzheimer’s Disease is associated with non-smoking.
    18. An Early Warning for Lung Cancer- Less than 3% of smokers die of Lung Cancer.
    19a. Smoking Does Not cause Lung Cancer; helps to prevent it
    c. “Inhalation Bioassay of Cigarette Smoke in Rats”
    A. P. Wehrner, et al. (Battele Pacific Northwest Labs, Richland WA)
    Journal of Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 61: pp 1-17 (1981)

    The results show that the highest number of tumors occurred in the untreated control [non-smoking] rats. The next highest number of tumors occurred in rats subject to sham smoking, i.e. rats which were placed in the smoking machine without smoke exposure, and the lowest number of tumors occurred in the smoke-exposed rats. Among the latter, the largest number of tumors occurred in rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes having the lowest level of nicotine.
    20. Tobacco Will kill 1 billion this century,2933,202810,00.html?
    21. State and Institutions: At the service of the Pharmaceutical Industry
    22. Psychiatric Drug Facts.
    23. Encyclopedia entry for Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride)
    24. Pot Smoking not linked to Lung Cancer
    25. The association between degree of nicotine dependence and other health behaviors
    26. Vitamin B Sources, Wikipedia
    27. Alcohol and Health
    Additional Sources
    28. Primary Smoking and Lung Cancer

    29a. A view of The Madonna with Saint Giovannino”(15th C.) by Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494)

    b. A Closer view of The Madonna with Saint Giovannino”(15th C.) by Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494)

    c. “The Baptism of Christ”(18th C.) by Aert De Gelder

  7. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    Nicotine and Smoking: Benefits

    Though the risks of smoking are highly publicized, the medical benefits of smoking are rarely mentioned. The greatest risks of smoking come from the tars released during the combustion of tobacco, and these tars are implicated in lung cancer and other breathing disorders, though even the tar apparently has some beneficial effects in protecting the lungs from some noxious particulate matter (e.g. asbestos). According to many studies, the chief medical benefits of smoking are from the nicotine, which occurs naturally in tobacco as well as in certain vegetables such as tomatoes, potatoes, and red peppers, though in much smaller amounts. Interestingly, these three plants originated in the Americas so nicotine was essentially a “New World” substance. Native Americans were well aware of the curative properties of tobacco, and used it both medicinally and ceremonially.
    Numerous studies have shown the protective effects of smoking with regard to Parkinson’s Disease and ulcerative colitis, and an increasing body of research indicates it also helps protect against Alzheimer’s Disease and colo-rectal cancer. Since these effects are so well known, wehave not listed them below but have focused instead on a few more obscure medical benefits culled from the 1984-85 CDC bibliography. Brief documentation of the beneficial effects of smoking with regard to Parkinson’s, ulcerative colitis, Alzheimer and colo-rectal cancer will appear in an attached appendix of some relevant studies from the 1991 CDC bibliography.

    • 1. Smoking improves human information precessing.
    • 2. Higher nicotine cigarettes produce greater improvements [in information processing]
    • than low-nicotine cigarettes.
    • 3. Nicotine tablets produce similar effects.
    • 4. Nicotine can reverse the detrimental effects of scopolamine on performance
    • 5. Smoking effects are accompanied by increases in EEG arousal and decreases in the latency of the late positive component of the evoked potential.”
    0574. University of Reading, Department of Psychology (England). Warburton., D.M.; Wesnes, K. “The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Human Information Processing and the role of Nicotine in These Effects ”

    “In general, motor performance in all groups improved after smoking.”
    0530. London University, Institute of Psychiatry. O’Connor, K.P “Individual Differences in Psychophysiology of Smoking and Smoking Behaviour “

  8. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    …that an Australian study sampling, among other things, individuals over 45 years of age, found that 38.9% of smokers were overweight, versus 49.5% ex-smokers and 44.1% never-smokers?
    Australian Bureau of Statistics January 1994 report entitled “1980-90 National Health Survey: Lifestyle and Health Australia”.

    …that an Australian study sampling, among other things, individuals over 45 years of age, found that 11.3% of smokers suffered from hypertension, versus 27.0% ex-smokers and 29.0% never-smokers?
    Australian Bureau of Statistics January 1994 report entitled “1980-90 National Health Survey: Lifestyle and Health Australia”.

    …that an Australian study sampling, among other things, individuals over 45 years of age, found that 6.0% of smokers suffered from heart disease, versus 6.7% never-smokers and 11.4% ex-smokers?
    Australian Bureau of Statistics January 1994 report entitled “1980-90 National Health Survey: Lifestyle and Health Australia”.

    …that in an Australian study, 91.8% of those who never smoked reported a long term illenss, while those who smoked reported 89.0%?
    When age was taken into consideration, more people who had never smoked than those who did smoke reported one or more long-term illnesses.
    When the number of years during which a person had been a smoker were taken into account, it was the ex-smokers who fared worse when it came to long term illnesses.
    Australian Bureau of Statistics January 1994 report entitled “1980-90 National Health Survey: Lifestyle and Health Australia”.

    …that smoking has a protective effect on immunological abnormalities in asbestos workers?
    Data from: 0429. Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland). Lange, A.
    “Effect of Smoking on Immunological Abnormalities in Asbestos Workers”.

    … that Hypertension and postpartum hemorrhage are lower in smokers?
    Data from:
    0045. University of Tasmania (Australia). Correy, J.; Newman, N. Curran, J. “An Assessment of Smoking in Pregnancy.”

    … that nonsmokers and especially ex-smokers of cigarettes have greater risk of UC [ulcerative colitis]?
    Data from:
    4134. Lorusso, D.; Leo, S.; Miscianga, G.; Guerra, V. “Cigarette smoking and ulcerative colitis. A case control Study.” Hepato-Gastroenterology 36(4): 202-4, Aug. 1989.

    … that there is a low prevalence of smoking in ulcerative colitis? And that the disease often starts or relapses after stopping smoking?
    Data from:
    4101. Prytz, H.; Benoni, C.; Tagesson, C. “Does smoking tighten the gut?” In Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 24(9):1084-8, Nov. 1989.

    … that smoking protects against Parkinson’s disease?
    Data from many studies. Among them:
    1102. Carr, L.A.; Rowell, P.P. “Attenuation of 1methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophyridine- induced neurotoxicity by tobacco smoke.” Published in Neuro-pharmacology 29(3):311-4, Mar 1990.
    1190. Janson, A.M.; Fuxe, K.; Agnati, L.F. Jansson, A. et al. “Protective effects of chronic nicotine treatment on lesioned nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in the male rat.” Pub. in Progress in Brain Research 79:257-65, 1989.
    4014. Decina, P.; Caracci, G.; Sandik, R.; Berman, W. et al. “Cigarette smoking and neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism.” In Biological Psychiatry 28(6):502-8, Sept. 15, 1990

    … that RBCs [red blood cells] from cigarette smokers contain more glutathione and catalase and protect lung endothelial cells against O2 [dioxide] metabolites better than RBCs from nonsmokers?
    Data from:
    0759. University of Colorado. Refine, J.E.; Berger, E.M.; Beehler, C.J. et al. “Role of RBC Antioxidants in Cigarette Smoke Related Diseases.” Jan 1980 – continuing.

    … that Hypertension (high blood pressure) and postpartum hemorrhage are lower in smokers?
    Data from:
    0045. University of Tasmania (Australia). Correy, J.; Newman, N. Curran, J. “An Assessment of Smoking in Pregnancy.”

    … that Hypertension (high blood pressure) is less common among smokers?
    Data from:
    0146. Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases. Chen, H.Z.; Pan, X.W.; Guo, G. et al. “Relation Between Cigarette Smoking and Epidemiology of Hypertension.

    … that smokers have lower incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis than nonsmokers?
    Data from:
    Guy’s Hospital Medical School (England). Jones, R.M. “Influence of Smoking on Peri-Operative Morbidity.”

    … that smokers have less plaque, gingival inflammation and tooth mobility than nonsmokers?
    Data from:
    Veterans Administration, Outpatient Clinic (Boston). Chauncey. H.H,; Kapur, K.K.; Feldmar, R S. “The Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study of Oral Health: in Healthy Veterans (Dental Longitudinal Study)

    … that Smokers in general are thinner than nonsmokers, even when they ingest more calories?
    Data from:
    Numerous studies, but only two are listed below:
    0885. Kentucky State University. Lee. C.J.: Panemangalore. M. “Obesity Among Selected Elderly Females In Central Kentucky.” FUNDING: USDA 0942. University of Louisville. Belknap Campus School of Medicine. Satmford, B.A.; Matter, S.;
    Fell, R.D., et al. “Cigarette Smoking, Exercise and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol” FUNDING: American Heart Association.

    … that smoking improves motor performance?
    Data from:
    0530. London University, Institute of Psychiatry. O’Connor, K.P “Individual Differences in Psychophysiology of Smoking and Smoking Behaviour ”

    • Smoking improves human information processing?
    • Higher nicotine cigarettes produce greater improvements [in information processing] than low-nicotine cigarettes?
    • Nicotine can reverse the detrimental effects of scopolamine on performance?
    • Smoking effects are accompanied by increases in EEG arousal and decreases in the latency of the late positive component of the evoked potential?
    Data from:
    0574. University of Reading, Department of Psychology (England). Warburton., D.M.; Wesnes, K. “The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Human Information Processing and the role of Nicotine in These Effects”

    The WHO, in order to “prove” the dangers of ETS, financed the second largest study in the world on secondhand smoke.
    But the study “backfired” and showed not only that there was no statistical risk of disease on passive smoking, but even a protective effect for those who are exposed to it.
    Not surprisingly, it is said that the WHO tried to hide the study from the media.

  9. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    AKA, Smokers’ Paradoxes

    Note that the studies referenced are what is known as “hard science” as opposed to the “soft science” of epidemiological studies. Also, notice that the research here is not in tobacco literature or tobacco-funded literature; in fact, many of the studies cited are actually from antismoking literature funded by Big Tobacco Control and/or Big Pharma. For more information, please see the Must Reads. You can find previously cited Therapeutic Effects of Smoking and Nicotine in the FORCES International archives. An easy-to-read but well-referenced paper is ONE FEELS BETTER TEMPERED: An Investigation Into The Beneficial Effects Of Smoking

    The miracle supplement (for skin, heart, brain rejuvenation) Coenzyme Q10 is extracted from tobacco leaf. WebMistress: Coenzyme Q10 is also essential in fighting cancer!!!
    In Coenzyme Q10: A Miracle Vitamin , Dr. Richard A. Kunin extols the benefits of Coenzyme Q10. He also says:

    The energy of oxidation in cells depends on CoQ in partnership with niacinamide (vitamin B3), riboflavin (vitamin B2), and minerals such as iron and copper to effect the movement of electrons and hydrogen protons in the power plant of cell, the mitochondrion.

    Incidentally, tobacco leaf is the champion source, containing 184 mg in a quarter pound.
    Note that the doctor follows with the disclaimer, “In fact, the Japanese companies make their CoQ from tobacco, however it is only released by means of bacterial fermentation not by smoking.” The fact remains that CoQ 10 is a natural miracle for the human body and its chief source is tobacco! Those MDs just can’t get their heads around the fact that tobacco is a valuable gift from nature! Now take a look at what a pharmacy has to say about natural vs. synthetic CoQ10:

    The natural CoQ10 in Qmelt is made via fermentation in which a microorganism (in the case of CoQ10, a bacterium or yeast) naturally produces CoQ10. The CoQ10 is then extracted from the organism and concentrated. It is termed natural since it is normally and naturally produced by the yeast or bacterium from which it was taken. This is different from synthetic CoQ10 which is made by taking a compound found in tobacco and then mixing it with other chemicals to form a similar structure of CoQ10. While tobacco is natural, CoQ10 is not taken from tobacco in this synthetic process….the only thing taken from the tobacco is a compound which is used as the starting material for chemically creating CoQ10. That is why it is referred to as a synthetic process. Tobacco or plants in general do not contain significant amounts of CoQ10

    The pharmacy “information” is in direct contradiction of what is known by everyone else: (1) tobacco is the chief source of CoQ10 with an abundance of the enzyme and (2) the means by which CoQ10 is extracted is not chemical, although it might involve fermentation. (Note: The fermentation process might involve beets or fermented sugar cane.)

    AN IMPORTANT NOTE: The doctor cited above comments on the importance of CoQ in partnership with other nutrients, including niacinamide, AKA nicotinic acid, niacin and vitamin B3. This is a form of nicotine, which could result from the alteration of nicotine as it is very unstable. Please see Facts about Nicotine.

    Smoking Reduces Parkinson’s

    Neurology. 1999 Sep 22;53(5):1158. Smoking and Parkinson’s disease: a dose-response relationship Gorell JM, Rybicki BA, Johnson CC, Peterson EL
    Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Center in Molecular and Cellular Toxicology with Human Applications, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an inverse dose-response relationship exists between cigarette smoking and PD among ever-smokers and ex-smokers.
    METHODS: Smoking and alcohol consumption were analyzed in 144 PD patients and 464 control subjects, who were frequency matched for sex, race, and age (+/-5 years), in a population-based case-control study of men and women > or =50 years old in the Henry Ford Health System.

    RESULTS: With never-smokers as the reference category, there was an inverse association between current light smokers (>0 to 30 pack-years) and PD patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.59; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.53), and a stronger inverse association of PD with current heavy smokers (>30 pack-years; OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.62). When former >30-pack-year smokers were stratified by the interval since quitting, there was an inverse association between those who stopped >20 years ago and PD (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.42 to 1.75), and a greater inverse relationship with those who stopped 1 to 20 years ago (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.72). Alcohol consumption had no independent, significant association with PD, but heavy drinking (>10 drink-years) had a greater effect than light-moderate drinking in reducing but not eliminating the inverse association between smoking and PD.

    CONCLUSIONS: The inverse dose-response relationship between PD and smoking and its cessation is unlikely to be due to bias or confounding, as discussed, providing indirect evidence that smoking is biologically protective.
    Also see Smoking lowers Parkinson’s disease risk from Reuters (Mar 20, 2007).
    From “Temporal relationship between cigarette smoking and risk of Parkinson disease” (NEUROLOGY 2007;68:764-768):

    The lower risk of Parkinson disease among current and former smokers varied with smoking duration, intensity, and recentness. The dependence of this association on the timing of smoking during life is consistent with a biologic effect.

    Osteo-arthritis reduced threefold (the most for knee arthritis in women)

    IS OSTEOARTHRITIS IN WOMEN AFFECTED BY HORMONAL CHANGES OR SMOKING? from the journal for British Society for Rheumatology (1993).
    Internal antioxidant SOD doubled (recent article labels the higher SOD “the elixir of eternal life” based on animal experiments)

    From Scientists find elixir of eternal life – in a worm By Roger Highfield, Science Editor, “Detailed work showed that the gene can boost levels of proteins called SODs (superoxide dismutase) which mop up free radicals, harmful chemicals linked with aging. The researchers think that this may be a defense mechanism that helps the creatures tolerate starvation.”

    Reduced MAO B enzyme (smokers in their 60s have MAO B of nonsmokers in their 20s; also here). Lowering of MAO B is the Holy Grail (deprenyl does it but not as well as tobacco) of life-extension and smart drug circles.

    Explained very well by NightLight referencing The American Journal of Psychiatry illustrated by these graphs, and the National Academy of Sciences (September 8, 2003). More can be found on MAO and the importance of MAO-inhibitors in Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, MAO Inhibitors in Aging: Can They Serve as Protective Agents in Cardiac Tissue Against Oxidative Stress?, Scholar Google and

    The real eye-opener comes from theNational Institute on Drug Abuse! That’s about as far as you can get from being a shill for Big Tobacco! Yet, this antismoking group’s very own study, “Tobacco Smoke May Contain a Psychoactive Ingredient Other Than Nicotine” (NIDA News, Volume 13, Number 3, July, 1998), states plainly:

    The amount of the enzyme, called monoamine oxidase (MAO), is reduced by 30 to 40 percent in the brains of smokers, compared to nonsmokers or former smokers, the brain scans show. The reduction in brain MAO levels may result in an increase in levels of dopamine, which scientists associate with the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse.
    A note needs to be on the research paper in the American Journal of Psychiatry, Maintenance of Brain Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibition in Smokers After Overnight Cigarette Abstinence. The Abstract includes these remarks:

    OBJECTIVE: The authors’ goal was to replicate a previous finding that smokers have lower brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) levels than comparison nonsmoking subjects …RESULTS: Average MAO-B levels in smokers in the present study were similar to those found in the previous study and averaged 39% (SD=17) lower than those found in a comparison group of nonsmokers. Brain MAO-B levels did not differ between baseline levels and 10 minutes after smoking.

    So, the authors of this study were replicating the results that MAO-B levels are lower in smokers!!!

    This benefit of inhibiting MAO-B was known as long ago as 1987. From Irreversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase by some components of cigarette smoke, Life Science (1987 Aug 10;41(6):675-82), “Inhibitory activity towards monoamine oxidase has been found in a solution of cigarette smoke. The inhibition was irreversible.”

    Alas, one must an actual smoker to benefit. From the abstract of “Smoking a single cigarette does not produce a measurable reduction in brain MAO B in non-smokers” (PubMed):

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [11C]L-deprenyl-D2 have shown that brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) B is 40% lower in smokers than in non-smokers. …These results indicate that the reduction in MAO B in smokers probably occurs gradually and requires chronic tobacco smoke exposure.

    Telomerase (“fountain of youth”) much more active in smokers.

    Smoking is associated with increased telomerase activity in short-term cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells, Cancer Letters 2007 Feb 8;246(1-2):24-33. Epub 2006 Mar 6–from the Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

    Glutathione (chief antioxidant in human body) and catalase (another key antioxidant which neutralizes alcohol damage, cyanide,…) doubled in smokers.

    Also explained by NightLight.

    From The Abstract of Normal alveolar epithelial lining fluid contains high levels of glutathione in the Journal of Applied Physiology (Vol. 63, Issue 1, p. 152-157):
    The epithelial cells on the alveolar surface of the human lower respiratory tract are vulnerable to toxic oxidants derived from inhaled pollutants or inflammatory cells. Although these lung cells have intracellular antioxidants, these defenses may be insufficient to protect the epithelial surface against oxidants present at the alveolar surface. This study demonstrates that the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract contains large amounts of the sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The total glutathione (the reduced form GSH and the disulfide GSSG) concentration of normal ELF was 140-fold higher than that in plasma of the same individuals, and 96% of the glutathione in ELF was in the reduced form. Compared with nonsmokers, cigarette smokers had 80% higher levels of ELF total glutathione, 98% of which was in the reduced form. Studies of cultured lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts demonstrated that these concentrations of reduced glutathione were sufficient to protect these cells against the burden of H2O2 in the range released by alveolar macrophages removed from the lower respiratory tract of nonsmokers and smokers, respectively, suggesting that the glutathione present in the alveolar ELF of normal individuals likely contributes to the protective screen against oxidants in the extracellular milieu of the lower respiratory tract.

    More studies on antioxidants in people who smoke can be found in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

    Selective increase of antioxidant enzyme activity in the alveolar macrophages from cigarette smokers and smoke-exposed hamsters. for American Review of Respiratory Disease, (1990 Mar, vol. 141, no 3, p. 678-82).

    Nicotine suppresses cell death of neurons (it also promotes vascular growth factor, e.g. growth and branching of capillaries). (Another advantage of nicotine is that Nicotine Slays TB. The link to this mainstream article is prefaced by this comment, “This article was written in 2001 and since then the ban on smoking in public places and taxing tobacco has grown. Extremely-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis strains will continue to spread and multiply. The resulting global XDR-TB epidemic will be an untreatable and unstoppable calamity.”)

    Low concentration carbon monoxide (as found in tobacco smoke) protects cells in harsh conditions, such as low oxygen and general cell death.

    From CO-RMs: Therapeutic Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecules (Monday, October 22, 2007; medGadget, Internet journal of Medical Technologies):

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a silent and powerful poison gas, might actually lend itself for a variety of promising clinical applications, according to the researchers from Sheffield University in the UK. Professor Brian Mann and colleagues from the University’s Department of Chemistry and hemoCORM Ltd, a spinout company, are working on water-soluble molecules that can deliver CO to tissues to “reduce inflammation, widen blood vessels, increase blood flow, prevent unwanted blood clotting and even suppress the activity of cells and macrophages which attack transplanted organs,” according to the university’s press release.

    Nitric oxide stimulates peripheral circulation (this is the mechanism behind Viagra effect).
    Raises youth hormones, e.g. DHEA, pregnenolone, testosterone,…

    Relation of age and smoking to serum levels of total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in aged men in Geriatrics & Gerontology International (Volume 6 Issue 1 Page 49-52, March 2006), which found these results, “Serum T did not decrease with age, and was significantly higher in smokers than for non-smokers. Serum DHEA decreased with age more sharply in non-smokers than for smokers.”

    Smoking reduces IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1)–at least in males for sure. In animal experiments, lowered insulin growth factor IGF-1 change extends lifespan.

    From Signals from the reproductive system regulate the lifespan of C. elegans (Nature. 1999 May 27;399(6734):308-9), “Mutants with reduced activity of the insulin/IGF-1-receptor homologue DAF-2 have been shown to live twice as long as normal”. From Dietary and Lifestyle Correlates of Plasma Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3): The Multiethnic Cohort (Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 13, 1444-1451, September 2004), “In addition, we observed associations between current smoking and low IGF-I levels…”–and, on p. 1449, table 3 shows that smoking had strongest reduction effect on IGF-1 in males!

    Hmmmmm…. So, IGF-1 is reduced in people who smoke and animals bred to have reduced IGF-1 have a tendency to double their life spans. That goes a long way toward explaining the reason that the people who have lived longest on this earth are all smokers!

    Reduced Incidence of Colorectal Cancer–especially in women.

    Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women (Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 80, No. 16, 1329-1333, October 19, 1988) states, “Colorectal cancer incidence rates for smokers, nonsmokers living with smokers (i.e., passive smokers), and non-smokers in smoke-free households were compared in a 12-year prospective study of 25, 369 women who participated in a private census conducted in Washington County, MD, in 1963. Women who smoked had a decreased relative risk of colorectal cancer compared with the risk for nonsmokers (age-adjusted relative risk, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.10). The risk for passive smokers was similar to that for smokers. The relative risks were significantly reduced for older women; relative risks were 0.42 for smokers and 0.66 for passive smokers over age 65. The data suggest that older women who smoke have a lower risk of colorectal cancer than non-smokers. The effect may be mediated by an antiestrogenic effect of smoking.” More evidence can be found in this scanned document

    People who smoke fare better than nonsmokers when exposed to occupational hazards.
    From Lack of combined effects of exposure and smoking on respiratory health in aluminium potroom workersBritish Medical Journal, Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Vol. 56, 468-472, 1999):

    Smokers in the potroom group had a lower prevalence of respiratory symptoms than never smokers or ex-smokers, which was significant for wheezing (2.6% v 17.4% and 28.6% respectively, both p < 0.01), whereas respiratory symptoms in controls tended to be highest in smokers (NS). No effects of potroom work on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms could be detected. In potroom workers, impairment of lung function due to occupational exposure was found only in non-smokers, with lower results for forced vital capacity (FVC) (98.8% predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (96.1% predicted) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) (80.2% predicted) compared with controls (114.2, 109.9, and 105.9% predicted; each p < 0.001). Conversely, effects of smoking on lung function were only detectable in non-exposed controls (current smokers v non-smokers: FVC 98.8% v 114.2% predicted; p < 0.01; FEV1 95.5 v 109.9% predicted; p < 0.05)." (NOTE: The key result is that for the exposure controlled group (the potroom workers) the smoking reduced the risk of lung damage sixfold compared to never-smokers.)

    For asbestos workers, "Effect of Smoking on Immunological Abnormalities in Asbestos Workers" (Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Poland) by Lange, A.:
    Smoking has a protective effect on immunological abnormalities in asbestos workers.
    More for asbestos workers is found in "Cancer of the Lung Among Asbestos Factory Workers" (University of London, School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine), relative risk of lung cancer for asbestos workers was "highest for those who had never smoked, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for ex-smokers. The trend was statistically significant. There was no significant association between smoking and deaths from mesothelioma,"

    And again in The Interaction of Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer by G. BERRY1, and F. D. K. LIDDELL (Oxford Journals, Medicine, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Volume 48, Number 5, p. 459-462, 2004):

    Conclusion: The excess relative risk of lung cancer from asbestos exposure is about three times higher in non-smokers than in smokers. The modified measure has been placed within a more versatile model of interaction. If interaction is present the relative risk from asbestos exposure changes only slightly between light and heavy smokers, but is higher in very light smokers and non-smokers.

    Many other studies show protective effects of smoking for asbestos workers. Similar effects are found for other lung cancer risk factors, including radiation and chemical cancerogen exposures. For example:

    From "Lung Cancer Dueto Chloromethyl Ethers" (Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Philadelphia) by Weiss, W., "Over the 22 years of follow-up, exposed workers have had a very high risk of respiratory cancer, mostly of the lung. The risk has been dose related and has been much higher in nonsmokers and ex-smokers than in current smokers. The epidemic began to subside shortly after exposure to chloromethyl ethers ceased. The mean induction-latency period was 17 years. Most of the lung cancers in the moderate and high dose groups have been small cell carcinoma,"
    From "Respiratory Effects of Exposure to Diesel Emissions in Underground Coal Miners" by Ames, R.G. (DHHS, PHS, CDC, NIOSH. Funding: NIOSH), "Presence of chronic respiratory symptoms at baseline was inversely related to cessation of smoking. Respiratory impairment was positively associated with smoking cessation, but failed to reach statistical significance,"

    Reduces schizophrenia symptoms.

    From "Investigating the Association Between Cigarette Smoking and Schizophrenia in a Cohort Study," Am J Psychiatry (160:2216-2221, December 2003):

    Cigarette smoking may be an independent protective factor for developing schizophrenia. These results are consistent with animal models showing both neuroprotective effects of nicotine and differential release of prefrontal dopamine in response to nicotine.
    From Cancer in schizophrenia: is the risk higher or lower? in Schizophrenia Research (Volume 73, Issue 2, Pages 333-341) at :

    The incidence of cancer in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia was compared with the incidence in the general population. The results showed that the cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all sites were significantly lower among men and women with schizophrenia, 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.93] and 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.97), respectively. This reduced overall risk was clearest for those born in Europe-America, both men (SIR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97) and women (SIR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.94).
    Appetite Suppressant — no citations. Common sense. Most stimulants are appetite suppressants, and nicotine does seem to be a stimulant.

    Tobacco: the definitive link in healthy aging by Daniel John Richard Date.

    Reduces incidence of Alzheimer's, among other degenerative diseases.
    From The Straight Dope Classics:

    "A statistically significant inverse association between smoking and Alzheimer's disease was observed at all levels of analysis, with a trend towards decreasing risk with increasing consumption" (International Journal of Epidemiology, 1991)
    "The risk of Alzheimer's disease decreased with increasing daily number of cigarettes smoked before onset of disease. . . . In six families in which the disease was apparently inherited . . . the mean age of onset was 4.17 years later in smoking patients than in non-smoking patients from the same family" (British Medical Journal, June 22, 1991)
    "Although more data are needed . . . [an analysis of 19 studies suggests] nicotine protects against AD" (Neuroepidemiology, 1994)

    Nicotine injections significantly improved certain types of mental functioning in Alzheimer's patients (Psychopharmacology, 1992).

    One theory: nicotine improves the responsiveness of Alzheimer's patients to acetylcholine, an important brain chemical.

    "When chronically taken, nicotine may result in: (1) positive reinforcement [it makes you feel good], (2) negative reinforcement [it may keep you from feeling bad], (3) reduction of body weight [by reducing appetite and increasing metabolic rate], (4) enhancement of performance, and protection against: (5) Parkinson's disease, (6) Tourette's disease [tics], (7) Alzheimer's disease, (8) ulcerative colitis and (9) sleep apnea. The reliability of these effects varies greatly but justifies the search for more therapeutic applications for this interesting compound." ("Beneficial Effects of Nicotine," Jarvik, British Journal of Addiction, 1991)

    See more on smoking and reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease. In this compilation of 19 studies, 15 found a reduce risk in smokers, and none found an increased risk. Also noted is the fact that acute administration of nicotine improves attention and information processing in AD patients, which adds further plausibility to the hypothesis.
    Smoking is Good for You: Absence, Presence, and the Ecumenical Appeal of Indian Islamic Healing Centers

    In Shop owner says smoking 'doesn't cause disease' a shop owner "tells his customers that smoking calms the nerves and soothes the mind." This is in sync with what Albert Einstein stated upon becoming a lifetime member of the Montreal Pipe Smokers Club at the age of 71, "I believe that pipe smoking contributes to a somewhat calm and objective judgment in all human affairs."

    Evidence that smoking is protective against thyroid cancer

    Prepublished from the American Journal of Epidemiology (Sep 2007). From the abstract of pubmed's Alcohol Drinking, Tobacco Smoking, and Anthropometric Characteristics as Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Countrywide Case-Control Study in New Caledonia. (Unité 754, INSERM, Villejuif, France) by Guignard R, Truong T, Rougier Y, Baron-Dubourdieu D, Guénel P., quote (emphasis added):

    Exceptionally high incidence rates of thyroid cancer are observed in New Caledonia, particularly in Melanesian women. To investigate further the etiology of thyroid cancer and to clarify the reasons of this elevated incidence, the authors conducted a countrywide population-based case-control study in this multiethnic population. The study included 332 cases with histologically verified papillary or follicular carcinoma (293 women and 39 men) diagnosed in 1993-1999 and 412 population controls (354 women and 58 men) frequency matched by gender and 5-year age group. Thyroid cancer was negatively associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, but no inverse dose-response relation was observed. Height was positively associated with thyroid cancer, particularly in men. Strong positive associations with weight and body mass index were observed in Melanesian women aged 50 years or more, with an odds ratio of 5.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5, 20.3) for a body mass index of 35 kg/m(2) or greater compared with normal-weight women, and there was a clear dose-response trend. This study clarifies the role of overweight for thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women. Because of the high prevalence of obesity among Melanesian women of New Caledonia, this finding may explain in part the exceptionally elevated incidence of thyroid cancer in this group.

  10. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    More Reading.

    Here are some books & articles on cholesterol, saturated fat and coronary heart disease that I recommend you to check out.
    • The Great Cholesterol Con by Anthony De Celpo.
    • Good Calories, Bad Calories by Gary Taubes.
    • Cholesterol Myths by Uffe Ravsnkov
    • The Benefits of High Cholesterol by Uffe Ravnskov.
    Cholesterol: Friend or Foe? by Natasha Campbell-McBride

  11. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    Cholesterol and eggs

    …. To avoid elevations in blood cholesterol and reduce Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) risk, the public has been advised to consume no more than 300 mg cholesterol daily and limit consumption of eggs which contain about 213 mg cholesterol per egg. Surprisingly, there is little direct evidence linking higher egg consumption and incidence of CHD among 117,933 subjects in the NHS and HPFS, we found no evidence of an overall positive association between moderate egg consumption and risk of CHD in either men or women.
    The null association of egg consumption with risk of CHD observed in these studies may be somewhat surprising, considering widespread belief that eggs are a major cause of heart disease. One egg contains about 200 mg cholesterol, but also appreciable amounts of protein, unsaturated fats, folate, B vitamins, and minerals. It is conceivable that the small adverse effect caused by cholesterol is counterbalanced by potential beneficial effects of other nutrients.

    Two-thirds of the population will not benefit from lowering cholesterol in their diet
    Can J Cardiol 1995 Oct;11 Suppl G:123G-126G

    Dietary cholesterol and the optimal diet for reducing risk of atherosclerosis.

    McNamara DJ.

    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA.

    The importance of dietary cholesterol in the incidence of hypercholesterolemia in the population remains a topic of scientific debate. Analysis of the results from over 30 years of cholesterol feeding studies (n = 128) in more than 2750 patients indicate that for the majority of individuals modest changes in dietary cholesterol have little if any effect on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data demonstrate that on average a change in cholesterol intake of 100 mg/day results in a change in plasma total cholesterol of 0.07 mmol/L (2.5 mg/dL). The studies also show that the extent of response to dietary cholesterol is independent of the amount of dietary fat and of the baseline plasma cholesterol level. In contrast, the dose adjusted plasma cholesterol response to a dietary cholesterol challenge is affected by the type of dietary fat and the baseline dietary cholesterol intake. Based on these data a reduction in dietary cholesterol intake from 450 to 300 mg/day will, on average, lower plasma cholesterol levels by 0.10 mmol/L (3.7 mg/dL). This decrease is modest and highly variable due to significant interindividual heterogeneity of responses. It is estimated that one-third of the population is sensitive to dietary cholesterol whereas two-thirds are resistant to plasma cholesterol changes. In comparison, a 1% decrease in energy intake from saturated fat decreases plasma cholesterol 0.08 mmol/L (3 mg/dL). Consumption of products marketed as ‘No cholesterol’ with high total and saturated fat clearly does not contribute to the optimal diet for reducing plasma cholesterol levels of risk of atherosclerosis.

  12. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    Cholesterol in Eggs
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 2, 333-334, February 2002
    © 2002 American Society for Clinical Nutrition


    Eggs and heart disease risk: perpetuating the misperception
    Donald J McNamara
    Egg Nutrition Center 1050 17th Street, NW Suite 560 Washington, DC 20036 E-mail:


    The fact that no studies in the past decade have reported a significant relation between either egg consumption or dietary cholesterol intakes and heart disease risk (5) is consistent with the view that the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease should be dismissed. A small, statistically significant increase in the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol has little biological importance concerning heart disease risk when considered relative to those dietary and lifestyle factors that do in fact contribute to heart disease risk. Concerning the suggestion by Weggeman et al that eggs make no important contributions to the diet, I refer them to a recent supplement of the Journal of the American College of Nutrition (10) in which the merits of egg consumption are documented. In an evaluation of the relation between dietary cholesterol and the risk of heart disease, it is crucial to not only have accurate estimates of risk but also a practical perspective of what a risk estimate represents.

    10. McNamara DJ, ed. Where would we be without the egg? A conference about nature’s original functional food. J Am Coll Nutr, 2000;19:495S–562S.

    JAMA 1999 Apr 21;281(15):1387-94

  13. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    Eggs appear great!

    • Effect of egg yolk feeding on the concentration and composition of serum lipoproteins in man. Beynen AC, Katan MB. Atherosclerosis. 1985 Feb;54(2):157-66.
    • The effect of egg yolk consumption on the composition of LDL and on the concentration of HDL subclasses was studied in healthy subjects.
    • Six volunteers consumed a diet low in cholesterol for 10 days and then daily added 6 egg yolks to their diet for another 10 days; the experiment was repeated 1 year later with the same subjects. Egg yolk consumption caused the cholesterol intake to increase by 1600 mg/day, and the fat intake by 7 energy % at the expense of carbohydrates; this increase was due almost exclusively to monounsaturated fatty acids.
    • RESULTS: Upon egg yolk feeding the mean level of serum total cholesterol rose by 13%; the bulk of this rise was due to LDL cholesterol, which increased by 21% (READ: REDUCTION IN sdLDL).
    • VLDL and IDL cholesterol decreased by 19 and 11% (good), and serum total triglycerides by 17% (great).
    • Marked relative increases of 35 (very good) and 36% (very very good) were seen in the cholesterol level of the HDL subfractions with densities of 1.055-1.075 g/ml (HDL1) and 1.075-1.100 g/ml (HDL2), respectively.
    • The HDL2/LDL cholesterol ratio increased by 16% (VERY VERY GOOD).
    • No change in cholesterol in HDL3 (d greater than 1.100 g/ml) was observed (GOOD!).
    • The increase in cholesterol in HDL isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation significantly exceeded the increase in cholesterol in heparin-Mn2+ soluble HDL. This suggests the formation of apo E-containing HDL, i.e. HDLc, which has HDL density but is not soluble in heparin-Mn2+. (?translation please?…Is Krauss in the house?)
    • The composition of the LDL particles was significantly altered; the core became enriched in esterified cholesterol at the expense of triglycerides, and the ratio of core components to surface components increased by 7%. (read again: elimination of sdLDL and rise in round, puffy fluffy LDL particles *cheers!*)
    PMID: 3986015

  14. Dr. Heath Motley says:

    Eggs Prevent Heart Disease

    Little known nutrient Betaine shows benefit.
    Although folic acid and to a lesser extent vitamins B-6 and B-12, are known to be able to reduce levels of homocysteine, researchers from the Netherlands report of another nutrient-betaine, found mostly in eggs and liver also has this capability.
    They note that elevated plasma total homocysteine concentrations are considered a risk factor for giving birth to a child with neural tube defects and for cardiovascular disease.
    Just like folic acid, betaine facilitates the remethylation of homocysteine into methionine. However, the researchers note that ” … the folate-dependent remethylation takes place in all cells, whereas the betaine-dependent remethylation reaction is mainly confined to the liver.”

    According to the authors, eggs and liver are the best food sources of betaine.
    Additionally, they note that betaine has been shown to substantially decrease homocysteine levels in patients with a condition known as homocystinuria, and they therefore theorized that it could have the same benefit in healthy patients as well.

    • Researchers looked at 15 healthy patients aged 18 to 35 years, who were given six grams of betaine daily (two times per day at three grams) for three weeks.
    • Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast at the start, after two weeks, and at the end of the study at three weeks.
    • At the study’s start, the mean total plasma homocysteine level was 10.9 µmol/L.
    • The six grams of betaine decreased this level at two weeks by 0.9 µmol/L or slightly greater than 8 percent, although after three weeks by 0.6 µmol/L or 5.5 percent.
    The authors conclude that “Betaine supplementation decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers.” However, the extent of the decrease is much smaller in healthy volunteers than in patients with homocystinuria. In such patients, with plasma total homocysteine concentrations above 50 µmol/L, betaine supplementation significantly lowered plasma total homocysteine concentrations, by up to 75 percent.”

    However, they note that “The homocysteine-lowering effect seems smaller than that established by interventions with folic acid.”
    Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is produced by the body from choline and also from the amino acid glycine.
    Archives of Internal Medicine September 11, 2000;160

  15. Steve A. says:

    My simple rule of thumb is , if God made it , it’s okay to eat. If man made or modified it signigicantly, it’s bad for you. Pass another piece of that dark yellow Quiche, please!

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