Science and technology are essential equipment in man’s attempts to exist, build and just take charge of his environment. At any time because the discovery of science and its application gentleman has regularly manufactured initiatives to build different systems in purchase to conquer character, recreate the earth for his simplicity and advantages. Proper from the primitive instances, gentleman invented bow and arrow, hearth, hoes, knives, cutlass and so on, in purchase to offer with the existential issues character possesses. Even in the present earth, the initiatives of gentleman are in totality geared in the direction of the provision of food, apparel and shelter and other simple amenities for his survival.

Fundamentally, gentleman is capable to maneuver his way about the cosmos and arrive up with scientific discoveries mainly because of his normal endowments. Gentleman is obviously endowed with intelligence. He has the mental and normal means to forge tips and the ability to invent. The ability to invent would make him a creator or an inventor. So, the application of science to every day lifetime manifests in the different inventions of gentleman vis-à-vis the technological developments in human society. Science and technology, for that reason, are artificial inventions of gentleman mainly place to use for his advantages.

Gentleman, Heritage OF SCIENCE AND Engineering.

It is pertinent to mention that science does not exist outdoors the social cultural environment of gentleman. Gentleman is the creator of science and the inventor of technology. In point, gentleman could be regarded as the greatest expression of his environment. The enhancement of science and technology is typically aimed at acquiring methods to selected existential issues or troubles of character inside a individual socio–cultural environment. Though the character of science indicates an goal application to universal issues and situations, which is a deductionist solution to science we are unable to, having said that, deny the point that it is at 1st specific at dealing with particularistic instances inside a supplied environment.

Traditionally, gentleman has performed a essential role in the enhancement of science and technology. The human society, no doubt, has absent through a collection of evolutions, transformations and as properly as revolutions at each phase of its enhancement. In the early Greek time period, for instance, philosophy, artwork and science captivated most wide spread interest. Science and artwork were being component of philosophy. What existed having said that was speculative science. This was the time period wherever Thales lived. He regarded as the 1st notable philosopher and scientist in the western earth. He was the 1st human being to predict an eclipse of the sunshine, which sooner or later took spot in 585 B.C. His pupil, Anaximander, was the 1st evolutionist scientist in the western earth. He held that all living items originated from the sea and commenced to build in the course of time into different kinds by suggests of adaptation to their environment. He held that gentleman progressed from the animals. Anaximander also held that the earth was not flat but like a cylinder in condition and is known to have manufactured the 1st map in heritage. Pythagoras the mathematician, Democritus the atomists and Aristotle the finest scientist in Historic Greece, all lived at this time period.(Omoregbe 2002, 177)

Faith and theology took the centre phase and turned the focus of desire in the center ages. Ethics, literature and artwork characterized the renaissance age. On the other hand, at the emergence of Francis Bacon who laid the basis for inductive model of science, the modern time period witnessed the enhancement of empirical and experimental science. This was the time period wherever two notable doctrines emerged particularly, the Rene Descartes led Rationalism and the John Locke led Empiricism. But in the modern day time period the centre of desire has progressively shifted to science and technology. (Fadaunsi 1997, fifty eight).

It is essential to mention that the internal elements and as properly as man’s non complacency and his quest for information in every of the periods in the heritage of society knowledgeable the shifts in the emphasis for enhancement.

Engineering is what we know as applied science. It is the “systematic examine of tactics for generating and undertaking items” (Gordon 1942, twenty). In a like head method, D.P Lauda and R.D Ryan (1971: 53) see technology as:

Man’s energy to cope with his bodily environment both of those that supplied by character and t9hat created by man’s personal technological deeds, these types of as metropolitan areas and his attempts to subdue or manage that environment by suggests of his creativeness and ingenuity in the use of readily available resources.

Engineering is the application of the discoveries of science to boost the situations of human lifetime. It is this application that final results in inventions to boost human welfare in different sectors of human lifetime. Disciplines like Engineering, Medication, Data Engineering, Electronics, Architecture, etc. are applied sciences.(Omoregbe 2002, 179).

The heritage of technology extends as far as the ancestors of gentleman. Engineering grows and develops hand in hand with science. Equally of them compliment every other. The enhancement of different equipment when gentleman was at the primitive phase in the heritage of society is recorded to be the 1st technological revolution. By the time of the Neanderthal Gentleman, a diploma of specialization in tool generating experienced been accomplished. The Cro–Magnon homosapiens mastered some mechanical concepts in pottery generating and by the time period of the Neolithic Gentleman, gentleman experienced pretty state-of-the-art in tool generating crafts.(Ndubuisi 2002, 132).

By the 16th century, Francis Bacon advocated experimental science and proposed that scientists need to examine the approaches of craftsmen. Engineering continued to mature with enhancement of iron bridges, steam engines and textile equipment. This time period witnessed the complimentary roles of science with technology. For instance, Edison, the inventor of the 1st functional lights made use of the scientific tips of Faraday and Henry, who experienced before experimented on energy. Bell, the inventor of the phone also formulated it on the scientific tips of Helmholtz.(Ndubuisi 2002, 133).

Increased Productiveness

There is no gainsaying the point that the revolution that normally takes spot in science and technology in human society is by no imply feat. With the help of technology, gentleman has been capable to place to use his tips of nearly a great, seamless society with the help of different gadgets he develops for his advantages. The earth today, especially in this twenty first century, ordeals economic and political growths as a end result of scientific and technological breakthroughs. There are breakthroughs and breakthroughs in the places of ability and electricity, transportation, communication, medicine, architecture, agriculture, market, armed forces technology, computer system, room shuttles, biotechnology etc.

That improvement in science and technology has contributed to the improvement of efficiency and elevated economic expansion in human society is an understatement. The point is apparent that science and technology has a substantial conversation to productions in all sphere of human society. The industrial revolution which happened in Europe in the 18th century marked the commencing of an economic expansion and revolution. This industrial revolution showed a huge social, economic, and technological improve, which commenced with the introduction of steam ability, fuelled generally by coal. The technological and economic progresses recorded of the industrial revolution received momentum with the introduction of steam powered ships, boats and railways. On the other hand, at the transform of the nineteenth century, the revolution spread during Western Europe and North The usa, and sooner or later impacting the relaxation of the earth. (Wikipedia)

The occasions following the improved efficiency of labour characterized by the industrial revolution which experienced spread throughout the earth led to the ‘second industrial revolution’ commencing about 1870. This next industrial revolution gradually grew to contain “the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries and the automotive industries“.(Ndubuisi 2002, 151). In point, the raising availability of economic petroleum goods also reduced the utilization of coal to the opportunity for industrialization.

It is for that reason essential to mention that these industrial revolutions, which led to the development of different giant industrial corporations with typically just about, globalize intercontinental operations and pursuits, paved the way for the successive scientific technological revolution that emerged in the 1940s and nineteen fifties. This scientific and technological revolution is thus apparent in some nations, like the disintegrated Soviet Union and the United States of The usa, visit to the moon through this time period. Right now, other nations are following suite. In September 2008, China launched her room shuttle and despatched a three gentleman a single 7 days room delegation to the moon.

It can be noticed from the foregoing that the indelible mark manufactured by the revolutions in science and technology has affected the way gentleman, of the modern age, perceives the earth. The scientific and technological revolution that has taken the earth by storm today stemmed from the industrial revolution of the 18th century. Kolawole Ogundowole (2003: 134) notes that:

In the 1st 50 percent of the twentieth century especially through the 194s and 195s there were being essential shifts in the construction of most sciences and in the scientific action as a end result of major scientific and technical discoveries. This in transform led to an improve conversation of science with technology and production. Precisely, it was through that decade that mankind entered the time period of scientific and technological revolution.

Right now, the scientific and technological revolution is boosting efficiency of labour. It is changing the full deal with of social material production. It evidently has a beneficial improve in excess of the character, situations and contents of labour as properly as the composition of effective forces, the social division of labour, and the sectional and occupational construction of society.

In his perception, Dryakhlov (1984: fifty five) defines scientific and technological revolution as:

The radical qualitative transformation and production forces completed as a end result of the merger in between the scientific and technological revolutions and the conversion of science into a direct effective pressure.

This implies that as a single of the simple concepts and legal guidelines of dialectics, there exists in human developmental procedures, quantitative and qualitative improvements. This affirms the materialist assertion that all the things develops from the transformation of quantity into excellent. So, scientific and technological revolution is a unique phenomenon connected with the conversion of science into direct effective pressure of the society, “the radical qualitative transformation of the construction of effective forces and the improvements in the character and written content of human labour”. (Ogundowole 2003, 138).

With the evolution and enhancement of science and technology, it has come to be apparent that this revolution has elevated production and usage, especially in the formulated nations of the earth, over and above all expectations of the previous. It is thus probable that poverty, starvation, and even unemployment on a substantial scale would be a phase of heritage. This is why V.G Afanasiev (2003: 139) notes that:

Science is the generator of tips: technology is their material, substantive embodiment though production is the area wherever the operating of technology occurs, wherever individuals use scientific and technological achievements to attain their needed material wealth.

At this juncture, it is pertinent to mention that the charge of enhancement of science and technology and its startling achievements in nearly each sphere of human lifetime, especially as it improves efficiency in human society, is not without its side effects. Karl Marx was a single of these who pointed it the evil inherent in the industrialization process. Marx was not, having said that, versus the enhancement of technology. But Marx thought that the industrialization process was the evil in the dialectical progression of feudal economic modes, which led to the entire enhancement of capitalism. Marx admitted that the industrialization of the society happened, but it only led to the polarization of society into two main courses. Marx did not deny this industrialization, but was aggravated at the exploitation that existed in between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. According to Marx (1972: 183):

Industrialization engenders the polarization of societies into two courses, the bourgeois these who personal the suggests of production, i.e. the factories and the land, and the much bigger proletarian doing work class who in fact carry out the labour needed to extract some thing important from the suggests of production.

As a direct effect of the scientific technological revolution, Marx opined that swift breakthroughs in technology left lots of experienced staff unemployed, as a single agricultural and production endeavor right after a further was mechanized. Again, Marx pointed out that there were being flights of millions of unemployed individuals from rural places or small towns to the substantial metropolitan areas as a end result of the lookup for white collars careers. So, there was the enhancement of substantial city population facilities, which in fact led to unprecedented situations of poverty in the slums that housed staff for the new factories. At the identical time, the bourgeoisie class, at only a small fraction in contrast to the proletariat’s size turned exceedingly wealthy.

As a answer to this circumstance of unequal distribution of wealth and sheer exploitation of the capitalist program, Marx asserted that the dialectical progression, itself, is a needed precursor to the enhancement of socialism and sooner or later communism. Marx (1972: 209) thought that:

The industrial proletariat will sooner or later build class consciousness and revolt versus the bourgeoisie, foremost to a much more egalitarian socialist and sooner or later communist state wherever the staff themselves personal the suggests of industrial production.

Marx may possibly not be appropriate with his belief that capitalism, which formulated as a end result of the industrialized technological breakthroughs, would collapse and give way to socialism and eventual communism. The actuality in our earth today shows that capitalism, as versus socialism, strives and technology is advancing. But occasions in recent time clearly show that improvement in technology has not solved most of the existential issues in our earth. Improvements in food/agricultural technology, for instance, have not halted the shortage of food. Taken that famine is commonplace in most developing nations, citizens of the technological state-of-the-art nations are also crying fowl with the substantial value of food products in their society. In point the United Nations Companies, early in the 12 months 2008, introduced that the full earth was likely through a big food crisis.

In the identical vein, breakthroughs and revolution in science and technology did not stop the economic economic downturn that happened in the United States of The usa in 2008. Irrespective of its enhancements of efficiency, scientific and technological revolution did not stop this economic economic downturn in the U.S which led to the loss of in excess of 800 thousand careers in between January and September, 2008. The 700 billion pounds economic bail out approach despatched by the erstwhile U.S president Bush and accredited by the legislature in October 2008 continues to be to be noticed in supporting the economic transform about of the place. Even the stimulus approach by the latest US president Obama has not manufactured sizeable contribution to the US economic system.

Similarly, the revolution in science and technology has not stopped the death of a variety of tiny young children in China in excess of the melamine contamination of the newborn milk and other diary goods. Hence, irrespective of its potentials in boosting efficiency, its effects on labour, human lifetime, task loss, could sometime be devastating.


We are unable to deny the very good that the breakthroughs in science and technology have carried out to gentleman in just about each part of his lifetime. We are unable to also rule out the point that gentleman is the instrument of improve in the scientific technological revolution. In purchase words and phrases, science and technological developments are unable to be manufactured probable without gentleman getting at the centre of its creation and inventions. This would make B.M Kedrov and S. Shukhardin (2003: 139) take into consideration that “scientific and technological revolution is an integral phenomenon encompassing the total ‘man–science–production’ program”.

We need to having said that emphasize that science and technology is like a double–edge sword. It has both of those beneficial and destructive sides. Although its results has enormously improved the excellent of human lifetime, its destructive side is very devastating to human lifetime.

Gentleman faces really serious threat of the damaging side of technology in the places of air air pollution, air pollution of seas and rivers, the depletion of the ozone layer, poisonous waste, etc. The damaging effects of technology on mankind could also be noticed in the places of the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, in individual the manufacture of chemical weapons, atomic bombs, organic and nuclear weapons.(Omoregbe 2002, 181).

The heritage of modern earth has shown that effective nations that have formulated these weapons of mass destruction are typically tempted to use it on weaker nations. The atomic weapon of mass destruction made use of by the United States of The usa, through the 2nd World War, in excess of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan is even now refreshing in our memory. This is why presumably most other nations, like Iran, Korean, India etc., are developing nuclear weapons for themselves in purchase to protect themselves and wade off the risk of attack.

There are different other threats that the breakthroughs and revolution in science and technology pose to mankind, but these damaging things of science and technology are not sufficient excuses to deny the evident that nearly all people any where in the earth has benefited positively from it. It has improved man’s issue of lifetime by generating the necessities of lifetime, like food shelter apparel transportation communication health etc., much more conveniently readily available.

It is for that reason our place that the beneficial things that can be derived from the science and technology are of wonderful great importance to gentleman. Gentleman need to for that reason ensure that science and technology need to be to his support and oriented in the direction of human affairs. Gentleman need to avoid the improper utilization of technology as this may possibly lead to his self destruction. The improper utilization of science and technology poses much more really serious threats to earth peace which gentleman has been trying to attain because the commencing of the earth.


Afanasiev V,G, quoted from Kolawole Ogundowole (2003), Character of Gentleman: 

                               History and Philosophy of Science in 10 Modules, Lagos,

                               Accurate Counsels Confined.

Dryakhlov N.,(1984), The Scientific and Technological Revolution: Its Function in

                               Present-day World, Moscow, Progress Publishers.

Fadaunsi Ayo, (1997), Science and Engineering as Guarantees and Threats to

                               Societies” in The Nigerian Journal of Philosophy,

                               Section of Philosophy, University of Lagos.

Gordon G., (1942), What Took place in Heritage, London, Oxford University Press.

Kedrov B.M and Shukhardin S. quoted from Kolawole Ogundowole (2003), 

                             Character of Gentleman: Heritage and Philosophy of Science in 10   

                             Modules, Lagos, Accurate Counsels Confined.

Lauda, D.P and Ryan, R.D, (1971), Advancing Engineering, Iowa, W.M.C. Brown

                              Company Pub,ishers.

Marx Karl, (1972), Economic, Class and Social Revolution, London, Nelson


Ndubuisi Friday,(2002),  “The Rise and Advancement of the Several Locations of

                              Engineering” in Kolawole Ogundowole (ed),  Gentleman, Heritage

                              and Philosophy of Science: A Compendium of Readings,

                               Lagos, Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publihers Confined.

Omoregbe Joseph, (2002),  “Science and Engineering in the Service of Gentleman” in

                               Kolawole Ogundowole (ed),  Gentleman, Historyn and

                               Philosophy of Science: A Compendium of Readings,

                               Lagos, Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publihers Confined.

Wikipedia, “Industrial Revolution”, http.www.thefreeencyclopedia.htp


Source by Oseni Taiwo Afisi

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